# Static Methods

# static query()

const queryBuilder = Person.query(transactionOrKnex);

Creates a query builder for the model's table.

All query builders are created using this function, including $query, relatedQuery and $relatedQuery. That means you can modify each query by overriding this method for your model class.

See the query examples section for more examples.

# Arguments

Argument Type Description
transactionOrKnex object Optional transaction or knex instance for the query. This can be used to specify a transaction or even a different database. for a query. Falsy values are ignored.

# Return value

Type Description
QueryBuilder The created query builder

# Examples

Read models from the database:

// Get all rows.
const people = await Person.query();
console.log('there are', people.length, 'people in the database');

// Example of a more complex WHERE clause. This generates:
// SELECT "persons".*
// FROM "persons"
// WHERE ("firstName" = 'Jennifer' AND "age" < 30)
// OR ("firstName" = 'Mark' AND "age" > 30)
const marksAndJennifers = await Person.query()
  .where(builder => {
    builder.where('firstName', 'Jennifer').where('age', '<', 30);
  })
  .orWhere(builder => {
    builder.where('firstName', 'Mark').where('age', '>', 30);
  });

console.log(marksAndJennifers);

// Get a subset of rows and fetch related models
// for each row.
const oldPeople = await Person.query()
  .where('age', '>', 60)
  .withGraphFetched('children.children.movies');

console.log(
  "some old person's grand child has appeared in",
  oldPeople[0].children[0].children[0].movies.length,
  'movies'
);

Insert models to the database:

const sylvester = await Person.query().insert({
  firstName: 'Sylvester',
  lastName: 'Stallone'
});

console.log(sylvester.fullName());
// --> 'Sylvester Stallone'.

// Batch insert. This only works on Postgresql as it is
// the only database that returns the identifiers of
// _all_ inserted rows. If you need to do batch inserts
// on other databases useknex* directly.
// (See .knexQuery() method).
const inserted = await Person.query().insert([
  { firstName: 'Arnold', lastName: 'Schwarzenegger' },
  { firstName: 'Sylvester', lastName: 'Stallone' }
]);

console.log(inserted[0].fullName()); // --> 'Arnold Schwarzenegger'

update and patch can be used to update models. Only difference between the mentioned methods is that update validates the input objects using the model class's full jsonSchema and patch ignores the required property of the schema. Use update when you want to update all properties of a model and patch when only a subset should be updated.

const numUpdatedRows = await Person.query()
  .update({ firstName: 'Jennifer', lastName: 'Lawrence', age: 35 })
  .where('id', jennifer.id);

console.log(numUpdatedRows);

// This will throw assuming that `firstName` or `lastName`
// is a required property for a Person.
await Person.query().update({ age: 100 });

// This will _not_ throw.
await Person.query().patch({ age: 100 });

console.log('Everyone is now 100 years old');

Models can be deleted using the delete method. Naturally the delete query can be chained with any knex* methods:

await Person.query()
  .delete()
  .where('age', '>', 90);

console.log('anyone over 90 is now removed from the database');

# static relatedQuery()

const queryBuilder = Person.relatedQuery(relationName, transactionOrKnex);

Creates a query builder that can be used to query a relation of an item (or items).

This method is best explained through examples. See the examples below and the following sections:

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
relationName string The name of the relation to query.
transactionOrKnex object Optional transaction or knex instance for the query. This can be used to specify a transaction or even a different database for a query. Falsy values are ignored.
# Return value
Type Description
QueryBuilder The created query builder
# Examples

This example fetches pets for a person with id 1. pets is the name of the relation defined in relationMappings.

const personId = 1;
const pets = await Person.relatedQuery('pets').for(personId);
select "animals".* from "animals"
where "animals"."ownerId" = 1

Just like to any query, you can chain any methods. The following example only fetches dogs and sorts them by name:

const dogs = await Person.relatedQuery('pets')
  .for(1)
  .where('species', 'dog')
  .orderBy('name');
select "animals".* from "animals"
where "species" = 'dog'
and "animals"."ownerId" = 1
order by "name" asc

If you want to fetch dogs of multiple people in one query, you can pass an array of identifiers to the for method like this:

const dogs = await Person.relatedQuery('pets')
  .for([1, 2])
  .where('species', 'dog')
  .orderBy('name');
select "animals".* from "animals"
where "species" = 'dog'
and "animals"."ownerId" in (1, 2)
order by "name" asc

You can even give it a subquery! The following example fetches all dogs of all people named Jennifer.

// Note that there is no `await` here. This query does not get executed.
const jennifers = Person.query().where('name', 'Jennifer');

// This is the only executed query in this example.
const allDogsOfAllJennifers = await Person.relatedQuery('pets')
  .for(jennifers)
  .where('species', 'dog')
  .orderBy('name');
select "animals".* from "animals"
where "species" = 'dog'
and "animals"."ownerId" in (
  select "persons"."id"
  from "persons"
  where "name" = 'Jennifer'
)
order by "name" asc

relatedQuery also works with relate , unrelate, delete and all other query methods. The following example relates a person with id 100 to a movie with id 200 for the many-to-many relation movies:

await Person.relatedQuery('movies')
  .for(100)
  .relate(200);
insert into "persons_movies" ("personId", "movieId") values (100, 200)

See more examples here.

relatedQuery can also be used as a subquery when for is omitted. The next example selects the count of a relation and the maximum value of another one:

const people = await Person.query().select([
  'persons.*',

  Person.relatedQuery('pets')
    .count()
    .where('species', 'dog')
    .as('dogCount'),

  Person.relatedQuery('movies')
    .max('createdAt')
    .as('mostRecentMovieDate')
]);

console.log(people[0].id);
console.log(people[0].dogCount);
console.log(people[0].mostRecentMovieDate);

Find models that have at least one item in a relation:

const peopleThatHavePets = await Person.query().whereExists(
  Person.relatedQuery('pets')
);

Generates something like this:

select "persons".*
from "persons"
where exists (
  select "pets".*
  from "animals" as "pets"
  where "pets"."ownerId" = "persons"."id"
)

# static knex()

Get/Set the knex instance for a model class.

Subclasses inherit the connection. A system-wide knex instance can thus be set by calling objection.Model.knex(knex). This works even after subclasses have been created.

If you want to use multiple databases, you can instead pass the knex instance to each individual query or use the bindKnex method.

# Examples

Set a knex instance:

const knex = require('knex')({
  client: 'sqlite3',
  connection: {
    filename: 'database.db'
  }
});

Model.knex(knex);

Get the knex instance:

const knex = Person.knex();

# static transaction()

const result = await Person.transaction(callback);
const result = await Person.transaction(trxOrKnex, callback);

Shortcut for Person.knex().transaction(callback).

See the transaction guide.

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
callback function
trxOrKnex knex or Transation Optional existing transaction or knex instance.
# Examples
try {
  const scrappy = await Person.transaction(async trx => {
    const jennifer = await Person.query(trx).insert({
      firstName: 'Jennifer',
      lastName: 'Lawrence'
    });

    const scrappy = await jennifer
      .$relatedQuery('pets', trx)
      .insert({ name: 'Scrappy' });

    return scrappy;
  });

  console.log('Great success! Both Jennifer and Scrappy were inserted');
} catch (err) {
  console.log(
    'Something went wrong. Neither Jennifer nor Scrappy were inserted'
  );
}

# static startTransaction()

const trx = await Person.startTransaction(trxOrKnex);

Shortcut for objection.transaction.start(Model1.knex()).

See the transaction guide.

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
trxOrKnex knex or Transation Optional existing transaction or knex instance.
# Examples
const trx = await Person.startTransaction();

try {
  await Person.query(trx).insert(person1);
  await Person.query(trx).insert(person2);
  await Person.query(trx)
    .patch(person3)
    .where('id', person3.id);
  await trx.commit();
} catch (err) {
  await trx.rollback();
  throw err;
}

# static beforeFind()

class Person extends Model {
  static beforeFind(args) {}
}

A hook that is executed before find queries.

See these sections for more information:

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
args StaticHookArguments The arguments
# Return value
Type Description
any The return value is not used.

# static afterFind()

class Person extends Model {
  static afterFind(args) {}
}

A hook that is executed after find queries.

See these sections for more information:

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
args StaticHookArguments The arguments
# Return value
Type Description
any If the return value is not undefined, it will be used as the return value of the query.

# static beforeUpdate()

class Person extends Model {
  static beforeUpdate(args) {}
}

A hook that is executed before update and patch queries.

See these sections for more information:

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
args StaticHookArguments The arguments
# Return value
Type Description
any The return value is not used.

# static afterUpdate()

class Person extends Model {
  static afterUpdate(args) {}
}

A hook that is executed after update and patch queries.

See these sections for more information:

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
args StaticHookArguments The arguments
# Return value
Type Description
any If the return value is not undefined, it will be used as the return value of the query.

# static beforeInsert()

class Person extends Model {
  static beforeInsert(args) {}
}

A hook that is executed before insert queries.

See these sections for more information:

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
args StaticHookArguments The arguments
# Return value
Type Description
any The return value is not used.

# static afterInsert()

class Person extends Model {
  static afterInsert(args) {}
}

A hook that is executed after insert queries.

See these sections for more information:

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
args StaticHookArguments The arguments
# Return value
Type Description
any If the return value is not undefined, it will be used as the return value of the query.

# static beforeDelete()

class Person extends Model {
  static beforeDelete(args) {}
}

A hook that is executed before delete queries.

See these sections for more information:

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
args StaticHookArguments The arguments
# Return value
Type Description
any The return value is not used.

# static afterDelete()

class Person extends Model {
  static afterDelete(args) {}
}

A hook that is executed after delete queries.

See these sections for more information:

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
args StaticHookArguments The arguments
# Return value
Type Description
any If the return value is not undefined, it will be used as the return value of the query.

# static bindKnex()

const BoundPerson = Person.bindKnex(transactionOrKnex);

Creates an anonymous model subclass class that is bound to the given knex instance or transaction.

This method can be used to bind a Model subclass to multiple databases for example in a multi-tenant system. See the multi tenancy recipe for more info.

Also check out the model binding pattern for transactions which internally uses bindKnex.

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
transactionOrKnex object knex instance or a transaction to bind the model to.
# Return value
Type Description
Constructor<? extends Model> The created model subclass constructor
# Examples
const knex1 = require('knex')({
  client: 'sqlite3',
  connection: {
    filename: 'database1.db'
  }
});

const knex2 = require('knex')({
  client: 'sqlite3',
  connection: {
    filename: 'database2.db'
  }
});

SomeModel.knex(null);

const BoundModel1 = SomeModel.bindKnex(knex1);
const BoundModel2 = SomeModel.bindKnex(knex2);

// Throws since the knex instance is null.
await SomeModel.query();

// Works.
const models = await BoundModel1.query();

console.log(models[0] instanceof SomeModel); // --> true
console.log(models[0] instanceof BoundModel1); // --> true

// Works.
const models = await BoundModel2.query();

console.log(models[0] instanceof SomeModel); // --> true
console.log(models[0] instanceof BoundModel2); // --> true

# static bindTransaction()

Alias for bindKnex.

# Examples
const { transaction } = require('objection');
const Person = require('./models/Person');

await transaction(Person.knex(), async trx => {
  const TransactingPerson = Person.bindTransaction(trx);

  await TransactingPerson.query().insert({ firstName: 'Jennifer' });

  return TransactingPerson.query()
    .patch({ lastName: 'Lawrence' })
    .where('id', jennifer.id);
});

This is 100% equivalent to the example above:

const { transaction } = require('objection');
const Person = require('./models/Person');

await transaction(Person, async TransactingPerson => {
  await TransactingPerson.query().insert({ firstName: 'Jennifer' });

  return TransactingPerson.query()
    .patch({ lastName: 'Lawrence' })
    .where('id', jennifer.id);
});

# static fromJson()

const person = Person.fromJson(json, opt);

Creates a model instance from a POJO (Plain Old Javascript Object).

The object is checked against jsonSchema if a schema is provided and an exception is thrown on failure.

The json object is also passed through the $parseJson hook before the model instance is created. See this section for more info.

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
json Object The JSON object from which to create the model.
opt ModelOptions Update options.
# Return value
Type Description
Model The created model instance
# Examples

Create a model instance:

const jennifer = Person.fromJson({ firstName: 'Jennifer' });

Create a model instance skipping validation:

const jennifer = Person.fromJson(
  { firstName: 'Jennifer' },
  { skipValidation: true }
);

# static fromDatabaseJson()

const person = Person.fromDatabaseJson(row);

Creates a model instance from a JSON object send by the database driver.

Unlike fromJson, this method doesn't validate the input. The input is expected to be in the database format as explained here.

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
row Object A database row.
# Return value
Type Description
Model The created model instance

# static modifierNotFound()

class BaseModel extends Model {
  static modifierNotFound(builder, modifier) {
    const { properties } = this.jsonSchema;
    if (properties && modifier in properties) {
      builder.select(modifier);
    } else {
      super.modifierNotFound(builder, modifier);
    }
  }
}

This method is called when an unknown modifier is used somewhere.

By default, the static modifierNotFound() hook throws a ModifierNotFoundError error. If a model class overrides the hook, it can decide to handle the modifer through the passed builder instance, or call the hook's definition in the super class to still throw the error.

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
builder QueryBuilder The query builder on which to apply the modifier.
modifier string The name of the unknown modifier.

# static createValidator()

class BaseModel extends Model {
  static createValidator() {
    return new MyCustomValidator();
  }
}

Creates an instance of a Validator that is used to do all validation related stuff. This method is called only once per model class.

You can override this method to return an instance of your custom validator. The custom validator doesn't need to be based on the jsonSchema. It can be anything at all as long as it implements the Validator interface.

If you want to use the default json schema based AjvValidator but want to modify it, you can use the objection.AjvValidator constructor. See the default implementation example.

If you want to share the same validator instance between multiple models, that's completely fine too. Simply implement createValidator so that it always returns the same object instead of creating a new one.

# Examples

Sharing the same validator between model classes is also possible:

const validator = new MyCustomValidator();

class BaseModel extends Model {
  static createValidator() {
    return validator;
  }
}

The default implementation:

const AjvValidator = require('objection').AjvValidator;

class Model {
  static createValidator() {
    return new AjvValidator({
      onCreateAjv: ajv => {
        // Here you can modify the `Ajv` instance.
      },
      options: {
        allErrors: true,
        validateSchema: false,
        ownProperties: true,
        v5: true
      }
    });
  }
}

# static createNotFoundError()

class BaseModel extends Model {
  static createNotFoundError(queryContext, props) {
    return new MyCustomNotFoundError({ ...props, modelClass: this });
  }
}

Creates an error thrown by throwIfNotFound method. You can override this to throw any error you want.

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
queryContext Object The context object of query that produced the empty result. See context.
props any Data passed to the error class constructor.
# Return value
Type Description
Error The created error. NotFoundError by default.
# Examples

The default implementation:

class Model {
  static createNotFoundError(queryContext, props) {
    return new this.NotFoundError({ ...props, modelClass: this });
  }
}

# static createValidationError()

class BaseModel extends Model {
  static createValidationError({ type, message, data }) {
    return new MyCustomValidationError({ type, message, data, modelClass: this });
  }
}

Creates an error thrown when validation fails for a model. You can override this to throw any error you want. The errors created by this function don't have to implement any interface or have the same properties as ValidationError. Objection only throws errors created by this function an never catches them.

# Return value
Type Description
Error The created error. ValidationError by default.

# static loadRelated()

WARNING

Deprecated! Will be removed in version 3.0. Use fetchGraph instead.

v1 documentation (opens new window)

# static fetchGraph()

const queryBuilder = Person.fetchGraph(models, expression, options);

Load related models for a set of models using a RelationExpression.

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
models Array<Model|Object> Model instances for which to fetch the relations. Can be an array of model instances, array of POJOs, a single model instance or a single POJO.
expression string|RelationExpression The relation expression
options FetchGraphOptions Optional options.
# Return value
Type Description
QueryBuilder The created query builder
# Examples
const people = await Person.fetchGraph([person1, person2], 'children.pets');

const person1 = people[0];
const person2 = people[1];

Relations can be filtered by giving modifier functions as arguments for the relations:

const people = await Person.fetchGraph(
  [person1, person2],
  `
    children(orderByAge).[
      pets(onlyDogs, orderByName),
      movies
    ]
  `
).modifiers({
  orderByAge(builder) {
    builder.orderBy('age');
  },

  orderByName(builder) {
    builder.orderBy('name');
  },

  onlyDogs(builder) {
    builder.where('species', 'dog');
  }
});

console.log(people[1].children.pets[0]);

# static traverseAsync()

Traverses the relation tree of a model instance (or a list of model instances).

Calls the callback for each related model recursively. The callback is called also for the input models themselves.

In the second example the traverser function is only called for Person instances.

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
filterConstructor function If this optional constructor is given, the traverser is only called for models for which model instanceof filterConstructor returns true.
models Model|Model[] The model(s) whose relation trees to traverse.
traverser function(Model, string, string) The traverser function that is called for each model. The first argument is the model itself. If the model is in a relation of some other model the second argument is the parent model and the third argument is the name of the relation.
# Examples

There are two ways to call this method:

const models = await SomeModel.query();

await Model.traverseAsync(models, async (model, parentModel, relationName) => {
  await doSomething(model);
});

and

const persons = await Person.query();

Model.traverseAsync(
  Person,
  persons,
  async (person, parentModel, relationName) => {
    await doSomethingWithPerson(person);
  }
);

Also works with a single model instance

const person = await Person.query();

await Person.traverseAsync(person, async (model, parentModel, relationName) => {
  await doSomething(model);
});

# static getRelations()

const relations = Person.getRelations();

Returns a Relation object for each relation defined in relationMappings.

This method is mainly useful for plugin developers and for other generic usages.

# Return value
Type Description
Object<string, Relation> Object whose keys are relation names and values are Relation instances.

# static columnNameToPropertyName()

const propertyName = Person.columnNameToPropertyName(columnName);

Runs the property through possible columnNameMappers and $parseDatabaseJson hooks to apply any possible conversion for the column name.

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
columnName string A column name
# Return value
Type Description
string The property name
# Examples

If you have defined columnNameMappers = snakeCaseMappers() for your model:

const propName = Person.columnNameToPropertyName('foo_bar');
console.log(propName); // --> 'fooBar'

# static propertyNameToColumnName()

const columnName = Person.propertyNameToColumnName(propertyName);

Runs the property through possible columnNameMappers and $formatDatabaseJson hooks to apply any possible conversion for the property name.

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
propertyName string A property name
# Return value
Type Description
string The column name
# Examples

If you have defined columnNameMappers = snakeCaseMappers() for your model:

const columnName = Person.propertyNameToColumnName('fooBar');
console.log(columnName); // --> 'foo_bar'

# static fetchTableMetadata()

const metadata = await Person.fetchTableMetadata(opt);

Fetches and caches the table metadata.

Most of the time objection doesn't need this metadata, but some methods like withGraphJoined do. This method is called by objection when the metadata is needed. The result is cached and after the first call the cached promise is returned and no queries are executed.

Because objection uses this on demand, the first query that needs this information can have unpredicable performance. If that's a problem, you can call this method for each of your models during your app's startup.

If you've implemented tableMetadata method to return a custom metadata object, this method doesn't execute database queries, but returns Promise.resolve(this.tableMetadata()) instead.

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
opt TableMetadataFetchOptions Optional options
# Return value
Type Description
Promise<TableMetadata> The table metadata object

# static tableMetadata()

const metadata = Person.tableMetadata(opt);

Synchronously returns the table metadata object from the cache.

You can override this method to return a custom object if you don't want objection to use fetchTableMetadata.

See fetchTableMetadata for more information.

# Arguments
Argument Type Description
opt TableMetadataOptions Optional options
# Return value
Type Description
TableMetadata The table metadata object
# Examples

A custom override that uses the property information in jsonSchema.

class Person extends Model {
  static tableMetadata() {
    return {
      columns: Object.keys(this.jsonSchema.properties)
    };
  }
}

# static raw()

Shortcut for Person.knex().raw(...args)

# static ref()

Returns a ReferenceBuilder instance that is bound to the model class. Any reference created using it will add the correct table name to the reference.

const { ref } = Person;
await Person.query().where(ref('firstName'), 'Jennifer');
select "persons".* from "persons" where "persons"."firstName" = 'Jennifer'

ref uses the correct table name even when an alias has been given to the table.

const { ref } = Person;
await Person.query()
  .alias('p')
  .where(ref('firstName'), 'Jennifer');
select "p".* from "persons" as "p" where "p"."firstName" = 'Jennifer'

Note that the following two ways to use Model.ref are completely equivalent:

const { ref } = Person;
await Person.query().where(ref('firstName'), 'Jennifer');
await Person.query().where(Person.ref('firstName'), 'Jennifer');

# static fn()

Shortcut for Person.knex().fn

# static knexQuery()

Shortcut for Person.knex().table(Person.tableName)